Flora at ‘Gundungurra’, Bundanoon

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[This is just a local species list of around 260 plant species for those interested in Australian flora, the naturalists and permaculturalists. It just shows the immense floral biodiversity that may still exist here on a small property in south-eastern Australia, and that we are fortunate to be able to maintain, regenerate and improve on our 20 acres at ‘Gundungurra’. (Gundungurra are the first people of this bioregion). The first photos shows two native understorey plants in late spring: the climber Old Man’s Beard over Gorse Bitter-pea with some White Stringybark trees in the background, the second photo is of a worker form-pruning our plantation native blackwoods for future cabinet timber. This list is actually formatted as a table, but would not convert as such to the WordPress blog.]

Flora at ‘Gundungurra’ Bundanoon

The following lists detail the uncultivated plant species on the eight hectares at ‘Gundungurra’ according to our present incomplete (and ever-evolving) knowledge. The property lies in a small valley at the headwaters of Paddy’s River in the Wingecarribee bioregion of the southern tablelands of NSW, Australia. Altitude is around 670 metres and average annual rainfall around 1200 mm. The soil is predominantly shale-derived and supports a remnant of the endangered ecological community Southern Highlands Shale Woodlands.

Question marks indicate where identification is uncertain. There are doubtless as yet many unidentified species, particularly of fungi, pasture and opportunist species. (In 1990 Professor J. Brewer of Macquarie University found 360 plant species on a mere thousand square metre, i.e. quarter acre, block on Sydney’s suburban North Shore. He also found 60 species of vertebrates, 4,000 species of invertebrates and 20,000 species of microorganisms!).

The list has been subdivided into identified natives occurring on-site (c. 95 spp, mainly along the creek line corridor), exotic opportunist/naturalised and pasture species (c. 64 spp.) and native flora planted since our work on the property began in 1995 (c. 100 spp). Thus total identified native plant species are now about 196, and all identified ‘wild/uncultivated’ plant species listed here together number about 259.

There are at least another 70 or so exotic tree genera/species which we have planted in the orchard, garden and windbreaks (for exotic fruit and nut varieties, cf. separate lists). This would give a grand total of around 329 identified plant species, wild/naturalised and cultivated. If we, in addition, had a hypothetical 20-40 or so as yet unidentified wild/naturalised species, this would give a grand total of about 348-368 probable plant species at ‘Gundungurra’. (This is close to Professor Brewer’s figure of 360 plant species for a small suburban Sydney North Shore block. Perhaps his figures for vertebrates, invertebrates and microorganisms might thus also be roughly applicable to Gundungurra?).

Native plants have been identified using A. Fairley & P. Moore (1989), Native Plants of the Sydney District. An Identification Guide, L. Costermans (1991), Native Trees and Shrubs of South-Eastern Australia, L. Robertson (1991), Field Guide to the Native Plants of Sydney, R. MacDonald & J. Westerman (1979), A Field Guide to Fungi of South-eastern Australia. Exotic opportunist species have been identified using F.J. Richardson et al (2011), Weeds of the South-East. An Identification Guide for Australia, R. Fitter et al (1974), The Wild Flowers of Britain and Northern Europe, and H. Garms (1972), Pflanzen und Tiere Europas.

A. Species Occurring Naturally On-Site

1. Trees (13)

Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus obliqua Messmate
E. viminalis Manna Gum
E. cypellocarpa Mountain Grey Gum
E. viminalis x cypellocarpa hybrid ? Manna Gum/Mt Grey Gum hybrid
E. radiata ssp. radiata Narrow-leaved Peppermint
E. globoidea White Stringybark
E. deanii Mountain Blue Gum/Broad-leaved Gum
E. ovata Swamp Gum
E. elata River Peppermint, River White Gum
E. elata x radiata radiata hybrid ? River Peppermint/Narrow-l. Peppermint
Mimosaceae
Acacia melanoxylon Blackwood
A. decurrens Green Wattle
A. parramattensis Parramatta/Sydney Green Wattle
A. longifolia var. longifolia Sydney Golden Wattle
A. irrorata ssp irrorata Green Wattle/ Blue Skin

2. Shrubs (9)

Apiaceae
Platysace linearifolia Narrow-leaf Platysace
Araliaceae
Astrotricha asperifolia Rough Star-hair
Polyscias sambucifolia Elderberry Pannax (bi-pinnate form)
Asteraceae
Cassinia uncata Sticky Cassinia
Olearia phlogopappa Alpine Daisy-bush
Euphorbiaceae
Phyllanthus thymoides Thyme Spurge
Fabaceae
Daviesia ulicifolia Gorse Bitter-pea
Rhamnaceae
Pomaderris discolor (?) Pomaderris
Santalaceae
Exocarpos strictus Pale Ballart

3. Herbs, Forbs, Ferns, Climbers and Grasses (45)

Adiantaceae
Adiantum aethiopicum Maidenhair Fern
Apiaceae
Hydrocotyle tripartite
Xanthosia sp.
Asclepiadaceae
Marsdenia suaveolens Scented Marsdenia/Sweet-scented Doubah
Asteraceae
Helichrysum rutidolepis (?) Paper Daisy/ Everlasting
Podolepis jaceoides Showy Copper-wire Daisy
Blechnaceae
Blechnum cartilagineum Gristle Fern
Campanulaceae
Wahlenbergia gracilis Native Bluebell
W. stricta Tall or Austral Bluebell
Convolvulaceae
Dichondra repens Kidney Weed
Dennstaedtiaceae
Pteridium esculentum Bracken Fern
Dilleniaceae
Hibbertia empetrifolia Trailing Guinea Flower
Epacridaceae
Leucopogon lanceolatus Lance-leaf Beard-heath
Fabaceae
Glycine clandestina Love Creeper
G. tabacina Love Creeper
Hardenbergia violacea False Sarsaparilla
Geraniaceae
Geranium homeanum Northern Cranesbill
Iridaceae
Libertia paniculata Branching Grass-flag
Liliaceae
Bulbine bulbosa Bulbine/Golden Lily or Native Leek
Dianella revoluta Mauve Flax Lily
Schellhammera undulata Lilac Lily
Loranthaceae
Amyema spp or Muellerina eucalyptoides? Mistletoe (on eucalypts)
Orchidaceae
Dipodium punctatum Hyacinth Orchid
Diuris sulphurea Tiger/Donkey Orchid
Pterostylis nutans Nodding Greenhood
Pterostylis pedunculata Little Red Riding Hood/Maroon Hood
Spiranthes sinensis ssp. australis Austral Ladies’ Tresses
Prasophyllum brevilabre Short-lip Leek-orchid
Pittosporaceae
Billiardiera scandens Apple Berry, Apple Dumplings
Poaceae
Danthonia spp Wallaby Grass
Poa labillardieri Tussock Grass
Microlaena stipoides Weeping Grass
Themeda australis Kangaroo Grass
Ranunculaceae
Clematis aristata Old Man’s Beard, Traveller’s Joy
Rosaceae
Rubus parvifolius Native Raspberry, Small-leaf Bramble
Acaena novae-zelandiae Bidgee-widgee
Rubiaceae
Asperula conferta Common Woodruff
Solanaceae
Solanum nigrum Black Nightshade
Solanum aviculare Kangaroo Apple
Stackhousiaceae
Stackhousia monogyna Candles, Candlesticks
S. nuda Leafless Stackhousia
Violaceae
Viola hederacea Native Ivy-leafed Violet
Xanthorrhoeaceae
Lomandra cylindrica Needle Mat Rush
L. longifolia Spiny-headed Mat Rush

Usnea inermis ? Lichen (green feathery)
Parmotrema perlatum ? Lichen (grey thallose)

4. Fungi (16)

Anthurus archeri (Clathraceae) (Phalloid, or Stinkhorn)
Aseroe rubra (Clathraceae) Starfish Fungus, Anemone Stinkhorn
Phallus rubicundus (Clathraceae) Red Stinkhorn
Boletus multicolor (Boletaceae) Boletus
Boletus portentosus (Boletaceae) Giant Boletus
Agaricus campestris (Agaricinae) Common Field Mushroom (edible)
A. xanthoderma (Agaricinae) ‘Yellow Stainer’ (inedible)
Coprinus comatus (Agaricinae) Shaggy Ink Cap or Lawyer’s Wig (edible)
Ganoderma applanatum (Polyporaceae) Bracket fungus (on E. cypellocarpa)
Lepiota gracilenta (Agaricinae) Slender Parasol (edible)
Lycoperdon glabrescens (Lycoperdaceae) Puff Balls
Scleroderma cepa Tough-skinned Puffball
Russula clelandii (Russulineae)
Trametes spp. (Polyporaceae) Bracket fungi
? Paint fungus (white) on dead wood litter
? Green/red rust fungi on living bark

5. Aquatic Species (12)

Alismataceae
Alisma plantago-aquatica Common Water Plantain
Characeae
Nitella sp Stonewort
Crassulaceae
Crassula helmsii Australian Stonecrop
Cyperaceae
Cyperus brevifolius (?) Sedge
C. polystachyos (?) Sedge
Eleocharis acuta (gracilis? cylindrostachys?) Common Spike Rush
Schoenus apogon Fluke Bogrush
Juncaceae
Juncus usitatus (continuus?) Common Rush
J. pallidus (?) Bullrush
Polygonaceae
Persicaria decipiens Slender Knotweed
P. hydropiper Water Pepper
Typhaceae
Typha orientalis Bulrush or Broad-leaf Cumbungi

B. Opportunists (Weeds) (54)

Amaranthaceae
Amaranthus caudatus Love-Lies-Bleeding/Red Amaranth
Apocynaceae
Vinca minor Lesser Periwinkle
Asteraceae
Arctotheca calendula Capeweed
Cirsium vulgare Spear Thistle
Conyza canadensis pusilla Canadian Fleabane
C. sumatrensis or bonariensis? Tall Fleabane
Hypochaeris radicata Common Catsear/Flatweed
Lapsana communis Nipplewort
Senecio madagascariensis Fireweed
S. sylvaticus (?) Mountain/Heath Groundsel
Silybum marianum Milk/Variegated Thistle
Sonchus arvensis Perennial Sow-thistle
S. asper Prickly Sow-thistle
S. oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle
S. palustris Marsh Sow-thistle
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion
Berberidaceae
Berberis vulgaris Berberis/European Barberry
Boraginaceae
Echium plantagineum Patterson’s Curse/Salvation Jane
Brassicaceae
Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepherd’s Purse
Caryophyllaceae
Gypsophila muralis Annual Gypsophila
Stellaria media Chickweed
Chenopodiaceae
Chenopodium album Fat Hen
Cruciferae
Nasturtium officinale Watercress
Cyperaceae
Isolepis (syn Scirpus) prolifera
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia peplus Petty Spurge
Gentianaceae
Centaurium tenuiflorum Slender Centaury
Guttiferae
Hypericum perforatum agg. Perforate St John’s Wort
Labiatae
Prunella vulgaris Self-Heal
Malvaceae
Malva sylvestris Common Mallow
M. parvifolia Small-flowered Mallow/ Marshmallow
M. neglecta Dwarf Mallow
Onagraceae
Epilobium lanceolatum Spear-leaved Willowherb
Oxalidaceae
Oxalis pes-caprae Soursob/Yellow Oxalis
O. purpurea or debilis Lilac Oxalis
Phytolaccaceae
Phytolacca octandra Ink Weed
Plantaginaceae
Plantago lanceolata Narrow-leaved/Ribwort Plantain
P. major Broad-leaved/Greater Plantain
Plumbaginaceae
Limonium spp. Common Sea-Lavender/Statice
Polygonaceae
Rumex acetosella Sheep’s Sorrel
R. crispus Curled Dock
R. obtusifolius Broad-leaved Dock
Primulaceae
Anagallis arvensis Scarlet Pimpernel
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculus repens Creeping Buttercup
Rosaceae
Cotoneaster microphyllus Small-leaved Cotoneaster
Crataegus monogyna Hawthorn
Filipendula ulmaria Meadowsweet
Rosa rubiginosa Sweet Briar
Rubus fruticosus agg Blackberry
Rubiaceae
Galium aparine Common Cleavers
G. mollugo Hedge Bedstraw
Scrophulariaceae
Euphrasia micrantha (?) Slender (?) Eyebright
Veronica persica Common Field Speedwell
Solanaceae
Solanum pseudocapsicum Jerusalem Cherry/Madeira Winter Cherry
Umbelliferae
Daucus carota Wild Carrot
Urticaceae
Urtica urens Stinging Nettle

C. Exotic Pasture Grasses (10)

Cynodon dactylon Couch
Dactylis glomerata Cocksfoot
Holcus lanatus Yorkshire Fog
Paspalum dilatatum Paspalum
Phalaris aquatica Phalaris or Canary Grass
Trifolium repens White Clover
T. angustifolium. Narrow-leaf Clover
T. dubium Yellow suckling Clover
Vicia sativa Vetch
Pennisetum clandestinum Kikuyu

D. Native Species Planted since 1995

1. Trees (26)

Casuarinaceae
Casuarina cunninghamiana River She-oak
C. cristata Belah
C. glauca Grey (Swamp) She-oak
Cupressaceae
Callitris columellaris White Cypress Pine
C. oblonga
Meliaceae
Melia azedarach White Cedar
Mimosaceae
Acacia decurrens Green Wattle
A. elata Mountain Cedar Wattle
A. mearnsii Black Wattle
A. melanoxylon Blackwood
Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus blakelyi Blakely’s Red Gum
E. cinerea Argyle Apple
E. crebra Narrow-leaved Ironbark
E. dalrympleana Mountain Grey Gum
E. eximia nana Yellow Bloodwood
E. globulus globulus compacta Tasmanian Blue Gum
E. gunnii Cider Gum
E. macarthurii Paddy’s River Gum
Corymbia maculata Spotted Gum
E. obliqua Messmate
E. ovata Swamp Gum
E. pauciflora Snow Gum
E. perriniana Spinning Gum
E. punctata Grey Gum
E. stellulata Black Sallee
Sterculiaceae
Brachychiton populneus Kurrajong

2. Shrubs, Forbs and Aquatics (78)

Baueraceae
Bauera sessiliflora Grampians Bauera
Fabaceae
Indigofera australis Austral Indigo
Lamiaceae
Westringia poorinda Native Rosemary
Liliaceae
Arthropodium milleflorum Vanilla Lily
Mimosaceae
Acacia binervata Two-veined Hickory
A. boormanii Snowy River Wattle
A. cultriformis
A. dealbata Silver Wattle
A. falciformis Hickory Wattle
A. fimbriata Fringed Wattle
A. floribunda Gossamer Wattle
A. howittii Sticky Wattle
A. implexa Hickory or Lightwood
A. lineata Streaked Wattle
A. myrtifolia Myrtle Wattle
A. pravissima Oven’s Wattle
A. rubida Red Stem Wattle
A. stricta Hop Wattle
A. suaveolens Sweet Wattle
A. terminalis Sunshine Wattle
A. verniciflua Varnish Wattle (died)
Myrtaceae
Acmena smithii Lillypilly
Baeckea virgata Tall Baeckea
Callistemon citrinus Crimson Bottlebrush
C. sieberi Alpine Bottlebrush
C. subulatus Dwarf Bottlebrush
C. viminalis Weeping Bottlebrush
C. vim. ‘Dawson River weeping’
C. vim. ‘Hannah Ray’
C. salignus x C. vim. ‘Edna Walling Scarlet Willow’
C. ‘King Park Special’
Calytrix sullivanii Pink Grampians Fringe-myrtle
Kunzea ambigua White Kunzea/Tick Bush
Leptospermum flavescens syn polygalifolium Yellow Tea Tree
L. juniperinum Prickly Tea Tree
L. lanigerum Woolly Tea Tree
L. morrisonii
L. murraysii
Melaleuca armillaris Giant Honey-myrtle
M. hypericifolia Red-flowering Paperbark
M. linariifolia
M. squarrosa Scented Paperbark
M. stypheloides Prickly-leaved Paperbark
M. thymifolia
Syzygium paniculatum ‘Magenta Cherry’ Lillypilly
Pittosporaceae
Bursaria spinosa Sweet Bursaria/Blackthorn
Pittosporum undulatum Sweet Pittosporum
Protaceae
Banksia ericifolia Heath Banksia
B. marginata Silver Banksia
B. spinulosa Hairpin Banksia
Grevillea baueri
G. ‘Bronze rambler’
G. ‘Apricot Fire’
G. ‘Austroflora Jubilee’
G. ‘Moonlight’
G. ‘Peter Poorinda’
G. ‘Robyn Gordon’
G. ‘White Wings’
G. rivularis Carrington Falls Grevillea
Hakea ‘Burrendong Beauty’
H. laurina
H. salicifolia Willow-leaved Hakea
H. sericea Needlebush
H. teretifolia Dagger Hakea
H. suavolens
Telopea speciosissima Waratah
Rosaceae
Rubus rosifolius Forest Bramble, Rose-leaf Bramble
Rutaceae
Correa reflexa Common Correa
Crowea exalata Small Crowea
Eriostemon hispidulus Wax Flower
Sapindaceae
Dodonea viscosa ssp. cuneata Wedge-leaf Hop Bush
Solanaceae
Solanum aviculare Kangaroo Apple
Aquatics
Marsilia mutica (Marsileaceae) Large-leaved Nardoo
Restio tetraphyllus (Restionaceae) Tassel-leaved Spike Rush
Baumea articulata (Cyperaceae) Jointed Twig-rush
Carex appressa (Cyperaceae) Tall Sedge
Gahnia sieberaniana (Cyperaceae) Red-fruited Saw-sedge
Phragmites australis (Poaceae) Common Reed
Triglochin procera (Juncaginaceae) Water Ribbons

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~ by Peter Lach-Newinsky on August 7, 2016.

2 Responses to “Flora at ‘Gundungurra’, Bundanoon”

  1. something else we have in common peter…i.d.ing the flora and fauna…
    sadly, dan and i have begun speculating, due to climate change, how soon we’ll be seeing the subtropical plants in florida start showing up in kentucky!

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